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What Was The Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement


(42) “Continue to send a clear message to India that the Kashmir issue should be resolved by mutual agreement between India and Pakistan, that the United States is ready to assist through the UN and other means, but that the United States has no ulterior motives or hidden objectives that would be fostered by a settlement in favour of either country.” Pakistan`s decisions to sign a cooperation agreement with Turkey and a mutual defense assistance agreement with the United States were proof of its increased involvement in a common front against communism. The impact of the Battle Act on Indian exports of thorium nitrate to the communist countries of the bloc on US economic aid to India was of considerable force in persuading India to reach an agreement on the elimination of its production of thorium nitrate and other materials such as the strategic qualities of mica. Tensions in U.S. relations were inevitable given the divergent interests of the two companies. The United States was concerned about the expansion of its containment policy, and the aid was aimed at protecting non-communist countries from the aggression of communism. For Pakistan, however, it was mainly a matter of increasing its defence, military and economic capabilities vis-à-vis India. Pakistan`s leaders were primarily concerned about Pakistan`s security, which has been repeatedly threatened by India. Second, they thought the US could be helpful in resolving the Kashmir dispute by putting pressure on India to hold a referendum in the region. It is therefore essentially Indian aggression that has brought Pakistan to the knees of the pacts we have sponsored. Pakistan stressed that the threat of Indian aggression is a great evil rather than communism and that aggression must be fought wherever it comes from.

In fact, Pakistan was not so threatened by Soviet aggression. We were still hesitant to let go of India and did not want to upset it. Therefore, India was assured that Pakistan would not use its weapons against India. Pakistan`s decision to join the Western pacts had angered the Soviet Union, which threatened to attack Pakistan after the U2 incident. On the other hand, it led India to turn to the Soviet Union for help, which it voluntarily granted to India against Pakistan. We have made active efforts to discourage and, as far as possible, prevent the delivery of strategic material to the communist bloc. As a result of some of these efforts, we have reached a general agreement with India (although the agreement has not yet been ratified by India) to ensure that thorium nitrate is not shipped from India to communist countries. (34) “Make it clear to India that in providing military assistance to Pakistan, the United States is not trying to make Pakistan the dominant state in South Asia.” Pakistan`s condemnation of the North Koreans as aggressors and its ability to respond to US policies and overtures were enough to force the Americans to consider an alliance with Pakistan as an alternative.

Therefore, Pakistan and the United States joined forces closely and concluded an agreement on mutual defence assistance on 19 May 1954. Paragraph 28. “Provide limited military assistance to certain South Asian countries, repayable or to be granted, which contributes to the maintenance of internal security and the defence of the territory.” The goal of the United States…